The College of Veterinary Science was established in year 1948 at Nagaon as the erstwhile Assam Veterinary College. The Assam Veterinary College offered 3-year diploma course leading to Graduate in Veterinary Science (G.V.Sc). The number of students admitted in the first batch was 33. Soon after independence, with just 33 students admitted in the first batch of the three years Diploma course (G.V.Sc), the college poised for a long march to grow as a premier institute. The increased realization of the importance of the veterinary profession coupled with the man power need to handle the veterinary and animal husbandry activities of the region was the driving force in the growth and development of this institution that was to follow in the coming decades. Since then the institute has grown leaps and bound in the past.
The College became a constituent college of Assam Agricultural University in 1969. The college under the Assam Agricultural University introduced Trimester System of education and started Postgraduate courses in five disciplines. Intake capacity to B.V.Sc. & A.H. course was also raised from 65 to 90. In 1977, Semester System of education replaced the Trimester System and in the year 1982, the intake capacity to B.V.Sc. & A.H. course was again increased to 130 from 90, and subsequently to 150 in 1985. Out of the total of 14 departments existing at that stage, 12 departments started Ph.D. degree program by the year 1985. Academic Regulations and syllabus as prescribed by the Veterinary Council of India for the B.V.Sc. & A.H. degree program were adopted by AAU in 1995. Presently, the number of students enrolled in the first year B.V.Sc. & A.H. degree each year is 100 and enrolment capacity of each department in M.V.Sc. and Ph.D. degree program is 10 and 4, respectively.
Besides imparting teaching, the institute carries out field oriented researches in animal husbandry and veterinary, and also provides extension services to the farmers with the aim of technology transfer. The college also provides expert services to the state govt. departments of the entire North Eastern region of the country, primarily in formulation of developmental plans and policies in animal husbandry sector. It also provides expert services in management and healthcare of wildlife in state zoos, sanctuaries and national parks of the region. The institute strives for human resource development to cater to the needs of the farmers and breeders for bringing about sustainable improvement in the livestock and poultry production through improved breeding, feeding, management and health care.